Supporting the effective planning, design and development of safe urban environments.
Researchers from the Estonian Police and Border Guard identified a lack of consensus on the role of the police and other urban design stakeholders within an integrated Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) strategy.
Current Estonian legislation does not oblige planners to coordinate or consult with the police, and researchers found plans were submitted to the police for their opinion on security issues only on an ad hoc basis. A lack of effective communication between stakeholders was highlighted.
As a result, urban design and planning often fails to take security aspects into account — with police officers left to deal with the consequences of poor design decisions.
Research identified that the Estonian police should adopt a more 'professional' role within the planning process, as CP-UDP experts providing practical design advice.
This requires clearer definition of the CP-UDP role within the police organisation, and its consistent delivery over the longer term.
To be effective, CP-UDP needs the buy-in of all urban development stakeholders. While the Estonian police support the CP-UDP approach, research suggested that this is not always the case with local planners, architects, designers or development companies.
The Building Safer Cities Together Tool — in Estonian,
"Koostöös turvalise ruumi loomine" — comprises a training
programme, policy guide and process protocol.
These components support
police, planners, architects and developers in developing a common understanding of CP-UDP and their role in its delivery.
Together with policy guidance and the process protocol,
the Tool enables Estonian Police and Border Guard officers to support the effective planning, design and development of safe urban environments.
CP-UDP process protocol
The end-users of the Tool are:
Police officers, including community police officers
Architects and urban designers
Planners in local authority planning departments
Students training for the above roles
These end-users were involved in Tool prototyping meetings, giving feedback on early versions of Tool materials both online and face-to-face. This was critical to the development of final designs that were feasible for implementation and acceptable to end-users.
The Tool will also be used to engage the 'next generation' of professionals involved in CP-UDP, including students of policing, architecture and urban planning.
Tool direction identified
Tool development & prototyping
Training programme demonstration
National implementation workshop
Local implementation workshop
Using the research methods and tools developed by the CCI project, the Estonian Police and Border Guard undertook a structured process of requirements capture research involving:
Interviews with four police officers
Observational research with three local municipalities’ planning departments
Two focus groups with urban design stakeholders, including planners and architects
A workshop with 39 participants
Two online surveys
Research findings were analysed to identify themes. In addition, a process map of police engagement in CP-UDP was developed.
The Tool was introduced to the different end-users through online breakout sessions. During these, participants could use and review the different Tool components to better understand their utility and value.
Tool policy guidance and the CP-UDP process protocol were used by Estonian Police administrators, Ministry officials and heads of police departments.
The Tool training programme was undertaken by urban planners, architects, police officers, police training department officials and university officials.
In addition, the Tool was introduced as an agenda item in day-to-day meetings of end-users.
Tool implementation activities during the CCI project
Tool implementation activities planned for the future
Davey, C.L. & Wootton A.B. (2016). Integrating crime prevention into urban design and planning From European procedures to local delivery methods. Journal of Place management and Development, Vol. 9, No. 2 pp. 153-165
Levald,. A. et al (2010) “CPTED manual: Crime prevention through urban design”. Report of EU-funded project Development of existing urban design, planning and crime prevention methods and introduction of new ones to improve living environment safety (CPTED). Available: https://eucpn.org/sites/default/files/document/files/GP_EE_CPTED%20Manual%20for%20police%20officers.pdf
van Soomeren, P. (2007) Annex 15 – The European Standard for the Reduction of Crime and Fear of Crime by Urban Planning and Building Design: ENV 14383–2, Technical Report CEN/TR 14383–2, October 2007.
Effective crime prevention through urban
design and planning (CP-UDP) requires
improved cooperation between police,
local authority planners and development
This requires that police officers are supported to adopt a more formal CP-UDP consulting role.
CP-UDP is a proven approach to preventing crime and fostering safety and security. Policies and practices that support effective CP-UDP should be implemented across Europe.
CCI demonstrates the value of EU support for projects addressing CP-UDP.
Anna Kristiina Lätt,