Supporting CP-UDP project recording, visualisation and impact assessment
Design for Security (DfS) is a team within Greater Manchester Police (GMP) providing security and CP-UDP consultation services.
DfS consultants provide expert assessment of built environment design proposals, resulting in a Crime Impact Statement (CIS). In Greater Manchester, the CIS is a requirement for all 'major' developments seeking local authority planning approval. While police-based, DfS is staffed by professionals with a development industry background — including planners and architects.
Research identified that the impact of DfS and the value of CP-UDP was not well-understood within the wider police organisation. Current software tools used to support DfS workload and project management do not contribute to the evaluation or communication of DfS impact. Significant CP-UDP knowledge and practical experience exists within the DfS team. However, where DfS advice has informed urban design decisions across Greater Manchester is not readily apparent — either to team members or GMP management. This inhibits impact assessment and communication of CP-UDP benefit.
The ProMIS Tool is a custom-designed relational database application using
the Salesforce platform (provided by LOBA). The Tool will be used on a
day-to-day basis by the DfS team to manage their CP-UDP consultancy
work on development projects across Greater Manchester. It provides a
system for recording details of proposed built environment projects on which
DfS provides advice.
The ProMIS Tool captures and codifies multiple characteristics of DfS projects:
Visual mapping of where different DfS consultants are involved in projects across Greater Manchester, supporting the ongoing management of the DfS service
Support for the management of the DfS business cycle on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis
The ability to generate maps, graphs and tables of data for use in communicating DfS CP-UDP work and priorities
The ability to highlight crime prevention issues to relevant stakeholders.
A comprehensive database of DfS projects that supports analysis of CP-UDP impact and the benefit of DfS work in reducing policing workload
The ProMIS Tool is designed for use by:
Consultants in the Design for Security (DfS) team at Greater Manchester Police
Senior officers making decisions on police resourcing strategy in the city
Local authority planners, to understand the impact of including CP-UDP design requirements in planning decisions
The DfS team have designed, prototyped and tested multiple iterations of the ProMIS Tool. Feedback was also obtained from GMP’s Evidence-based Practice Board. End-user design feedback has informed the final design of the Tool and implementation strategy.
Tool direction identified
Tool development & prototyping
National implementation workshop
Local implementation workshop
Using the research methods and tools developed by the CCI project, GMP undertook a structured process of requirements capture to develop the Tool Specification. In addition, to support design development, research included focus groups and prototype testing.
Process mapping: Each of the individual DfS services (CIS, SBD, PLA and CLT) were mapped on a process map detailing work streams and stakeholder engagement points
Interviews: Interviews on the DfS service were conducted with five local authority planning stakeholder teams across Greater Manchester.
Focus Groups: Five Tool feedback sessions were held with the eight members of DfS.
Prototype testing: Bi-weekly prototype testing sessions were held from June to November 2021 between DfS and LOBA's software development team.
Finally, the Tool concept was presented three times to the GMP Evidence-based Practice Board, to gain feedback and buy-in from senior police officers and managers across GMP.
Demonstration of the ProMIS Tool took place on 21 December 2021, where the system was used in its operational environment to manage a DfS Team Meeting.
A survey was used to gain feedback on Tool demonstration from end-users.
Tool implementation activities during the CCI project
Tool implementation activities planned for the future
Andresen, M. (2017) "Mapping Crime Prevention: What We Do and Where We Need to Go" in Leclerc, B and Savona, E.U. (Eds) Crime Prevention in the 21st Century (pp.113–126), Abstract available here.
Ratcliffe, Jerry & Chainey, Spencer (2005) GIS and crime mapping. Published by Taylor and Francis. Abstract available here.
Cozens, P.M., Saville, G. and Hillier, D. (2005) "Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): a review and modern bibliography", Property Management, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 328-356. https://doi.org/10.1108/02637470510631483
Hillier, Bill & Sahbaz, Ozlem. (2008). An evidence based approach to crime and urban design Or, can we have vitality, sustainability and security all at once?. Vol, 23. Available here.
Wootton, A. B. & Davey, C.L. (2016) "The value of design research in improving crime prevention policy and practice", Proceedings of the11th European Academy of Design Conference, Paris, 22–24 April 2015. Refereed conference proceedings. Available from here.
Mapping CP-UDP interventions in an urban environment in an accessible, human-centred manner supports improved communication of impacts and benefits.
By digitally recording such interventions, along with CP-UDP design advice implemented and ignored, then comparing this with crime incident maps, a fuller picture of the costs and benefits of effective CP-UDP can be gained. In addition, correlations between risks identified at the design stage and the final situational reality can support improved understanding of causal relationships.
Strategic policing plans benefit from accessible information on future built environment developments — and consequent changes in, for example, building use types and population densities. Such developments can severely impact strategic resource management plans for police forces. Engagement with CP-UDP provides police forces with early insight into urban development plans that are otherwise unknown by police managers.